The Sun bathes the Earth in radiation. Much of this radiation reaches the surface, warming the planet and driving the climate.  The surface then emits heat (as infrared radiation), most of which does not escape to space, but is instead absorbed by gases in the Earth’s atmosphere.  These gases then warm, emitting further heat radiation both to space and back towards the Earth’s surface.  This is what we all know as the greenhouse effect.   The Earth’s energy balance In order for the radiative budget of the Earth to be in equilibrium – that is heat radiation leaving the planet to equal the absorbed solar...